1944 also marked the passing of another superstar of the abstract: Piet Mondrian (1872–1944). In 1909, he joined the Dutch Section of the Theosophical Society, and it is said that he kept a portrait of Madame Blavatsky (who co-founded the Theosophical Society in New York in 1875) in his studio. He was fascinated by a cosmic harmony, which was to be expressed by the interplay of various abstract elements that represented absolute truth and beauty. These elements, or “vibrations of energy,” were either masculine or feminine in nature, and were represented by vertical or horizontal lines, respectively. Together, they formed a divine unity. Geometric shapes and primary colours would become his signature motifs, and he used them to represent the complex structure of the universe.